Health of Bones in Light of Medical Science

Bone forms skeleton of body it contains the calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. See why strong health of bones is important in our body and guide of osteopenia diet for strong bones.

Functions of Bone

  • In blood it plays of calcium balance
  • Bone supports body
  • Protects body (Skull, Brain, Ribs, Lungs)

Bone Health

Health of bone depends upon two main constituents Calcium and Vitamin D

Low level of calcium and vitamin D may cause tiredness in body and make you inactive. You may fall down if you have low level of calcium.

Deficiency of these two substance causes many diseases, we can prevent from diseases by intake of calcium & Vitamin D.

Intake of Calcium

It is important to obtain calcium from diet and because our body can not produce calcium naturally.

Health of Bones Milk
For illustration purpose only: Pic by Unsplash

The best source of calcium is dairy products like, Milk, Yogurt, Green Leafy Vegetables & Soy Products & Fish as well. But these are not enough for bone health, for absorption of calcium we also need Vitamin D

Health of Bones Green Leafy Vegetables for calcium
For illustration purpose only: Pic by Unsplash

Intake of Vitamin D

Many foods contain Vitamin D naturally, for example: Fatty Fishes, Cheese, Egg Yolk, Beef Liver

Health of Bones Fatty Fish Egg Yolk
For illustration purpose only: Pic by Unsplash
Female (age groups)Male (age groups)Calcium Intake
0 to 6 months0 to 6 months200 mg daily
6 to 12 months6 to 12 months260 mg daily
1 year to 3 years1 year to 3 years700 mg daily
4 to 8 years4 to 8 years1000 mg daily
9 to 18 years9 to 18 years1300 mg daily
19 to 50 years19 to 50 years1000 mg daily
51 & younger71 & younger1000 mg daily
51 & older71 & older1200 mg daily

Intake of Vitamin D

Female (age groups)Male (age groups)Vitamine D
Intake (IU)
0 to 12 months0 to 12 months400 IU
1 year to 8 years1 year to 8 years600 IU
9 to 70 years9 to 70 years600 IU
70 Years plus70 years plus800 IU

Diseases Related to Bone

There are several diseases of bone, we are going to explain some of them below, Remember Health of bones is very much important.


Osteoporosis is a condition in which bones become weak and brittle. Osteoporosis affects both male and female but females are on higher risk especially older females who are on menopause (stoppage of menstrual cycle)

Here are some symptoms of osteoporosis, there are no early symptoms of osteoporosis but when your bone starts weakened you will feel these signs and symptoms

  • Loss in height
  • You will feel back and neck pain
  • Fracture of bones is most common symptom of osteoporosis

When you should go to Doctor?

If you are experiencing pain, severe pain in neck and back and feeling discomfort, you may have bone fracture which should be treated early.

Risk Factors of Osteoporosis

Risk factors and conditions given below may cause osteoporosis

  • Older age
  • Having menopause before age of 45
  • Smoking Cigarettes
  • Drinking alcohol regularly
  • Not performing any exercise (sitting one place most of time)
  • Low estrogen hormone in females
  • Low testosterone hormones in male
  • In History of family

Some medical conditions also cause osteoporosis, these conditions are Kidney failure, Diabetes (conditions in which blood glucose level high) Hyperthyroidism (condition in which excessive production of thyroid hormones) and Leukemia (cancer of blood or bone marrow)

How can we treat Osteoporosis?

Best medication is bisphosphonates

  • Alendronate (binosto, fosamax)
  • Risedronate (actonel atelvia)
  • Zoledronic acid

These tablets might have side effects may include nausea, abdominal pain & heart burn.

Do not take any tablets/medicines without recommendations of Doctor

How can we prevent osteoporosis?

  • Get enough calcium and vitamin, eat balanced diet
  • Do regular basic exercises
  • Don’t smoke because smoking increases bone loss rate and causes fractures
  • Don’t use excessive alcohol, drinking may decrease the formation of bone, so limit your alcohol intake to 2 to 3 drinks a day.


It is also common disorder of bone, it cause by deficiency of Vitamin D, Calcium & Phosphate. Rickets people have soft bones and small growth.

Rickets are common in infants age like 6 months to 36 months old, children under this group of age are under higher risk of rickets.

Rickets are rare in United States.

Risk Factors of Rickets

May include age, diet, skin color, location, genetics


Rickets are common in children from 6 to 36 months old


If you are a vegetarian, you are on higher risk of rickets, so must include fish, beef, egg to your diet.

Infants who are only fed breast milk they may have deficiency of vitamin D because breast milk doesn’t contain Vitamin D so they cannot prevent from rickets.

Lactose Intolerance

People allergic to milk are on higher risk or people who have lactose intolerance which means they cannot digest dairy products (milk, yogurt, cream) are on higher risk. If you feel lactose intolerance and cramps in abdomen after having dairy products, must go to doctor before it’s too late.

Skin Color

Skin color is also cause of rickets because human body produces vitamin D when exposed to sunlight but darker skin doesn’t react as strong as lighter does (darker skin produces less vitamin D) that is why Africans, pacific island people are on higher risk and they have more ratio of rickets patients.


Because our body produces vitamin D when exposed to sunlight so people are on higher risk if they are living where there is less sunshine, so prevent working indoors in daylight hours.


If your family had before rickets, risks are higher that your child may have this disorder which will be known as hereditary rickets which means rickets spread from family.

Symptoms of Rickets

  • Pain in bones
  • Legs pelvis
  • Small growth and short height
  • Rickets delayed tooth formation
  • Bone fractures and muscle cramps
  • Holes in enamel

When should visit to Doctor?

Call your Doctor, if your child showing any of these symptoms given above. If this disorder not treated on during growth period of child so that child may have short height and small growth and deformities can also become permanent if this disorder goes untreated.

Bone Cancer

Bone cancer occurs when cells of bone grow out of control. These cells destroy bone tissues as it is cancer, it will spread to other parts of body.

Bone Cancer Symptoms

You might not notice symptoms of bone tumor weather it’s cancer or not, so doctor can find on any X-Ray

Some symptoms may include

  • Pain in area of tumor
  • Wakes you in a night
  • Fevers
  • Fatigue (tiredness in boy)
  • Swelling around a bone

Bone Cancer Treatment

Treatment of cancer is depended upon type of cancer (tumor) if tumor (cancer) is benign, doctors will treat it with medication. In some cases tumors (cancer) comes back even after treatment. Malignant tumors (cancer) need highly strongest treatment and it needs so much care from specialists.

Some Treatments given below

Limb Salvage Surgery

In this treatment the part of bone with cancer will be removed but not nearby muscles, tendons. Doctors will put metallic implant in place of bone.

Health of Bones Limb salvage surgery

Radiation Therapy

In this treatment the tumor cells will be killed with stong X-Rays

Health of Bones radiation therapy


If tumor is large and it is reached to vessels and nerves so removal of limp (part of body) will be the last option and treatment and then on the replacement you can use prosthetic limb (Artificial limb) which is shown below

Health of Bones Amputation
Health of Bones Amputation


In this treatment tumor cells are killed with cancer drugs

Fracture of Bones

Breakage of bone is called fracture, it may be partial break or full breakage of bone, it is may be due to fall or accident or may be some diseases but most commonly is accident.

There are many types of fractures due to many injuries or road accidents.

Symptoms of Fracture

Severe pain in limbs where fracture occurs that can be:

  • Arms
  • Legs
  • Hands
  • Wrist
  • Knee
  • Ankle
  • Foot
  • Toe
  • Elbow

Swelling at part of fracture

Unable to move that limb which has been fractured, limb will loose the grip

Unable to walk if fracture is in knee, ankle, foot, too or may be difficulty in walking

Feeling resistance in arm, hand, wrist

Stiffness and tenderness where fracture occurs

Bruising or redness at place of fracture

Bleeding if fracture is open

Treatment of Fracture

Doctors will recognize fracture with X-Rays, CT scan (computed tomography) MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

If fracture is not big, the bone will be healed naturally but if the fracture is big, it needs serious treatment and special care. Healing is natural process if bone is broken the bone will be healed naturally in some time, but for proper & perfect functioning doctors treat the affected part so that it can function properly.

Several Treatments Include:

Splints: Splint is medical apparatus which helps and protects the broken bone from other damages and it allows to move the damaged part

Casts: it is a supportive device which is used to treat broken bones, it keeps damaged bone at one place while healing. Casts may be half casts less restrictive or less supportive depending on fracture. As these are less expensive and used commonly it is most common for the treatment of fracture.

Health of Bones Injury Casts

Traction: It is a less common treatment. This helps to stabilize a fracture or injured part, it applies force to surrounding tissues, muscles or stabilize the dislocated part of body.

Metal Rods: are placed at broken bone to hold the bone broken pieces together.

Operation or Surgery: If fracture can not be healed naturally or by other ways, doctors will perform surgery to fix that broken bone.

Self Care after Bone Fracture

Rest the limbs as much as possible, avoid moving until the fracture is healed fully

Follow the techniques for daily activities (walking, changing cloths, taking shower) which has been taught to you by your doctor

Don’t do weight lifting activities until fracture heals

Avoid driving a vehicle until bone is fully healed

Don’t get your casts wet, if it is wet it will not provide any support and protection

If you feel any blueness, swelling call your doctor immediately

Complication of Bone Fractures

If bone is not properly healed it may result serious and painful infections. Some patients have pain even after treatment and healing and if you are suffering from these complications you need an expert orthopedic.

If you are on resting period for healing purpose make sure you move your other body parts which are not damaged, if you are not moving those parts, you may loose the movements of other parts.

Health of bones is very important, take good care of your bones and take required Vitamin D and calcium regularly.

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